Turbochargers are common on snowmobile engines. Below is a picture of one that makes around 800 hp. Also attached is a picture of a turbocharged two stroke dragster. It would be hard to fit all the equipment under an outboard cowl, though. The basic principle is to use the turbine as the restriction to raise the exhaust back pressure. That keeps the compressor from blowing the charge out the exhaust.
A lot of research on supercharged two strokes was done by Sir Harry Ricardo and Rolls-Royce before and during World War II. The V 12 engine was called the Crecy
. The concept wasn't as promising for aircraft as the jet engine and was dropped. Napier tried an extremely complex turbocompound two stroke, the Nomad
, that was also a poor substitute for the gas turbine.